Cui Tao, PhD

Associate Professor

Dr. Cui Tao’s background is in clinical informatics and computer science, and her research interests include ontologies, standard terminologies, semantic web, information extraction and integration as well as applying ontology and semantic web technologies to clinical and translational studies.


Dr. Tao is teaching HI5304 (Advanced Database Concepts in Health Informatics) and HI6306 (Information and Knowledge Representation in Health Informatics) at SBMI. When asked where informatics is headed, Tao said, “I believe the future of biomedical informatics will focus on big data analysis with data standardization and normalization.”

Contact

Cui.Tao@uth.tmc.edu
713.500.3981
Fax: 713.500.3929

Staff Support

Yukiko Bryson
Phone: 713.500.3992

Associate Professor

Dr. Cui Tao’s background is in clinical informatics and computer science, and her research interests include ontologies, standard terminologies, semantic web, information extraction and integration as well as applying ontology and semantic web technologies to clinical and translational studies.

Dr. Tao is teaching HI5304 (Advanced Database Concepts in Health Informatics) and HI6306 (Information and Knowledge Representation in Health Informatics) at SBMI. When asked where informatics is headed, Tao said, “I believe the future of biomedical informatics will focus on big data analysis with data standardization and normalization.”

Education

  • PhD, Computer Science, Brigham Young University 
  • MS, Computer Science, Brigham Young University  
  • BS, Biology and Computer Science, Beijing Normal University

Areas of Expertise

  • Applying semantic web and ontology technologies to clinical and biomedical applications
  • Ontology generation and conceptual modeling
  • Common terminology and ontology services
  • Information extraction and integration

Research Projects

  • Temporal relation modeling, extraction and reasoning
  • Secondary use of EHR data for clinical and translational studies
  • Ontology-based analysis for cancer drug repurposing
  • Vaccine and drug safety analysis
  • Ontology-based mHealth and patient education
  • Ontology-based personalized decision support systems

Publications
2015

  1. Tao C, Sun J, Zheng W, Chen J, Xu H, Colorectal cancer drug target prediction using ontology-based inference and network analysis, Database: The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation, Database (Oxford). 2015 Mar 27;2015. pii: bav015. doi: 10.1093/database/bav015.
  2. Chen G, Zhao J, Cohen T, Tao C, Sun J, Xu H, Bernstam E, Zeng J, Johnson A, Holla, Ann Balley V, Meric-Bernstam F and Zheng WJ, Using Ontology Fingerprints to disambiguate gene name entities in the biomedical literature, Database (Oxford). 2015 Apr 8;2015. pii: bav034. doi: 10.1093/database/bav034.
  3. Amith M, Gong Y, Cunningham R, Boom J, and Tao C. Vaccine information statement ontology for patient education. Journal of Biomedical Informatics. 2015;6:23. doi: 10.1186/s13326-015-0016-2
  4. Zhu K, Liu Q, Zhou Y, Tao C, Zhao Z, Xu H, Sun J. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes: comparative genomics and network perspectives. BMC Genomics 16(Suppl 7):S8
  5. Cao Y, He J, Xiao D, Tao C, Chen P, Muller H, Medical Image Retrieval: A Multi-modal Approach, Cancer Informatics, 2014:Suppl. 3 125-136
  6.  Legaz-García M, Marcos Menárguez-Tortosa, M, Fernández-Breis J, Chute CG, Tao C, Advancing in the interoperability of clinical models: transformation of CEM into OpenEHR Archetypes, Journal of American Medical Informatics Association 2015;0:1-9 DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocu027
  7. Zhang Y, Wu P, Luo Y and Tao C. Sex-associated Patterns in VAERS RDF Graph, J Biomed Semantics. 2015; 6: 33.
  8. Zhang Y, Soysal E, Moon S, Wang J, Tao C, Xu H, Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction, AMIA 2015 Joint Summits on Translational Science, March 2015, San Francisco, CA
  9. Long J, Hulse N, Tao C, Infobutton usage in Patient Portal MyHealth, AMIA 2015 Joint Summits on Translational Science, March 2015, San Francisco, CA
  10. Crowe C, Tao C, Designing Ontology-based Patterns for the Representation of the Time-Relevant Eligibility Criteria of Clinical Protocols, AMIA 2015 Joint Summits on Translational Science, March 2015, San Francisco, CA
  11. Myneni S, Amith M, Geng Y, Tao C, Towards an Ontology-driven Framework to Enable Development of Personalized mHealth Solutions for Cancer Survivors’ Engagement in Healthy Living, MedInfo, 2015
  12. Du J, Cai Y, Chen Y, Tao C, Adverse Event Analysis for Trivalent Influenza Vaccine Based On MedDRA Terminology Using VAERS Data, International Workshop on Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies (VDOS) -in conjunction with the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO) 2015, Lisbon, July, 2015
  13. Zhang Y, Wu H, Du J, Xu J, Wang J, Tao C, Li L, Xu H, Extracting Drug-Enzyme Relation from Literature as Evidence for Drug Drug Interaction, International Workshop on Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies (VDOS) -in conjunction with the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO) 2015, Lisbon, easy, July, 2015
  14. Butler K, Mercer E, Bahrami A, Tao C, Model Checking for Verification of Interactive Health IT Systems Keith A. AMIA Annual Symposium 2015, San Francisco, CA, Nov 2015
  15. Long J, Hulse N, Tao C, Analysis of empty responses from electronic resources in infobutton Managers. AMIA Annual Symposium 2015, San Francisco, CA, Nov 2015
  16. Jiang G, Solbrig HR, Prud’shommeaux E, Tao C, Weng C, Chute CG, Quality Assurance of Cancer Study Common Data Elements Using A Post-Coordination Approach. AMIA Annual Symposium 2015, San Francisco, CA, Nov 2015

2014

  1. Tao C, Okafor N, Mehta A, Maddow CL, Robinson D, King B, Zhang J and Franklin A, A Work Domain Ontology for Modeling Emergency Department Workflow, International Workshop on Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences (SWAT4LS), 2014, Berlin, Germany
  2. Zheng W, Du J, Tang J and Tao C, GSO: A Semantic Web Ontology to Capture 3D Genome Structure, International Workshop on Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences (SWAT4LS), 2014, Berlin, Germany
  3. Jiang G, Sharma D, Solbrig H, Tao C, Weng C, and Chute CG, Building A Semantic Web-based Metadata Repository for Facilitating Detailed Clinical Modeling in Cancer Genome Studies, International Workshop on Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences (SWAT4LS), 2014, Berlin, Germany
  4. Zhu Q, Tao C, Pharmacological Class Profile in the Web Ontology Language (OWL), The IEEE International Conference on Big Data (IEEE BigData 2014), Washington DC, Oct, 2014
  5. Clark K, Sharma D, Qin R, Chute CG, Tao C, A use case study on Late Stent Thrombosis for Ontology-based temporal reasoning and analysis, Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2014, 5:49 doi:10.1186/2041-1480-5-49
  6. Zhang Y, Tao C, Network Analysis of Cancer-focused Association Network Reveals Distinct Network Association Patterns, Cancer Informatics 2014:Suppl. 3 45-51
  7. Zhang Y, Tao C, Jiang G, Nair A, Su J, Chute CG, Liu H, Network-based Analysis Reveals Distinct Association Patterns in a Semantic MEDLINE-based Drug-Disease-Gene Network, Journal of Biomedical Semantics, Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2014, 5:33
  8. He Y, Sarntivijai S, Lin Y, Xiang Z, Guo A, Zhang S, Jaganathan D, Toldo L, Tao C, Smith B, OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events, Journal of Biomedical Semantics, Journal of Biomedical Semantics 2014, 5:29
  9. Amith M and Tao C. Towards the design of a vaccine information ontology for patient education. International Workshop on Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies (VDOS) -in conjunction with the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO) 2014, Houston TX, Oct, 2014
  10. Zhang Y, Wu P, Luo Y and Tao C. Network Analysis Identifies Sex-associated Patterns in VAERS RDF Graph, International Workshop on Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies (VDOS) -in conjunction with the International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO) 2014, Houston TX, Oct, 2014
  11. Tao C, Sun J, Zheng W, Chen J, Xu H, Drug target prediction for colorectal cancer by combining ontology and network approaches, International Conference on Biomedical Ontologies (ICBO), Houston TX, 2014, Oct, 2014
  12. Hulse N, Long J, Xu X, Tao C, Enabling Locally-Developed Content For Access Through the Infobutton By Means of Automated Concept Annotation. AMIA Annual Symposium 2014, Washington DC, Nov 2014
  13. Chen G, Zhao J, Cohen T, Tao C, Sun J, Xu H, Bernstam E, Zeng J, Johnson A, Holla, Ann Balley V, Meric-Bernstam F and Zheng WJ, Standardized Pharmacological Class Profile in the Web Ontology Language (OWL), International Conference on Biomedical Ontologies (ICBO) 2014, Houston TX, Oct, 2014
  14. Amith M, Tao C, A prototype mobile virtual assistant for semantic-based vaccine information retrieval, International Conference for Smart Health (ICSH) 2014, Beijing, China
  15. Shen F, Li D, Liu H, Pathak J, Chute CG, Tao C, Using Semantic Web Technologies for Quality Measure Phenotyping Algorithm Representation and Automatic Execution on EHR data, International Conference on Biomedical and Health Informatics (BHI 2014), Valencia, Spain
  16. Tao C, Wu P, Zhang Y, Linked Vaccine Adverse Event Data Representation from VAERS for Biomedical Informatics Research, 18th Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD 2014), Tainan, Taiwan

2013

  1. Clark K, Sharma D, Qin R, Chute CG, Tao C, Ontology-based temporal analysis for medical device adverse event— a use case study on Late Stent Thrombosis, International Workshop on Semantic Web Applications and Tools for Life Sciences (SWAT4LS), 2013, Edinburgh, UK
  2. Zhang Y, Li D, Tao C, Shen F, Liu H An integrative computational approach to identify disease-specific networks from PubMed literature information, the IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine (BIBM), 2013, Shanghai, China
  3. Zhu Q, Tao C, Shen F, Chute CG; Exploring the Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base (PharmGKB) for Repositioning Breast Cancer Drugs by Leveraging Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Cheminformatics, Approaches Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 19:172-182 (2014), Big Island, HI
  4. Hulse N, Long J, Tao C, Combining Infobuttons and Semantic Web Rules for Identifying Patterns and Delivering Highly-Personalized Education Materials, AMIA Annual Symposium. 2013
  5. Martinez-Costa C, Bosca D, Legaz-García M, Tao C, Fernández-Breis J, Schulz S, Chute CG, Isosemantic Rendering of Clinical Information Using Formal Ontologies and RDF, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 192: MEDINFO 2013
  6. Tao C, Sun J, Zheng W, Chen J, Xu H, Colorectal cancer drug target prediction using ontology-based inference and network analysis, Database: The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation, accepted
  7. Tao C, Wu P, Luo Y, Zhang Y, Linked vaccine adverse event data from VAERS for biomedical data analysis and longitudinal studies, BioData Min. 2014 Dec 31;7:36. doi: 10.1186/s13040-014-0036-y
  8. Zhang Y, Tao C, He Y, Kanjamala P, Liu H, Network-based analysis of vaccine-related associations reveals consistent knowledge with the vaccine ontology, Journal of Biomedical Semantics, 2013, 4:33 doi:10.1186/2041-1480-4-33.
  9. Pathak J, Bailey K, Beebe C, Tao C, Chute CG, et al Normalization and Standardization of Electronic Health Records for High-Throughput Phenotyping: The SHARPn consortium, Journal of American Medical Informatics Association 2013 Nov 4. doi: 10.1136/amiajnl-2013-001939
  10. Tao C, Song D, Sharma D, Chute CG. Semantic Annotator for Converting Biomedical Text to Linked Data, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 2013 Oct;46(5):882-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2013.07.003. Epub 2013 Jul 15.
  11. Hulse N, Long J, Tao C, Combining Infobuttons and Semantic Web Rules for Identifying Patterns and Delivering Highly-Personalized Education Materials, AMIA Annual Symposium. 2013
  12. Tao C, Song D, Sharma D, Chute CG. Semantic Annotator for Converting Biomedical Text to Linked Data, Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 2013 pii: S1532-0464(13)00102-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2013.07.003
  13. Tao C, Li D, Shen F, Pathak J, Liu H, Chute CG, Phenotyping on EHR Data Using OWL and Semantic Web Technologies, Lecture Notes in Computer Science series 8084, International Conference of Smart Health 2013.
  14. Sohn S, Wagholikar KB, Li D, Jonnalagadda SR, Tao C, Elayavilli RK, Liu H. Comprehensive temporal information detection from clinical text: medical events, time, and TLINK identification. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013 Apr. PMID:23558168. DOI:10.1136/amiajnl-2013-001622.

2012

  1. Tao C, Jiang G, Oniki TA, Freimuth RR, Zhu Q, Sharma D, Pathak J, Huff SM, Chute CG, A Semantic-Web Oriented Representation of the Clinical Element Model for Secondary Use of EHR Data, J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012, PMID:23268487. DOI:10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001326
  2. Tao C, He Y, Yang H, Poland GA, Chute CG, Ontology-based Time Information Representation of Vaccine Adverse Events in VAERS for Temporal Analysis. J Biomedical Semantics. 2012, 3:13
  3. Zhu Q, Freimuth RR, Lian Z, Bauer S, Pathak J, Tao C, Durski MJ, Chute CG, Harmonization and Semantic Annotation of Data Dictionaries from the Pharmacogenomics Research Network:  a case study. J Biomed Inform. 2012 PMID:23201637. DOI:10.1016/j.jbi.2012.11.004.
  4. Tao C, Pathak J, Solbrig HR, Wei W-Q, Chute CG.  Terminology representation guidelines for biomedical ontologies in the semantic web notations.  J Biomed Inform. 2012 Sep 28. pii: S1532-0464(12)00150-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2012.09.003.
  5. Zhu Q, Tao C, Ding Y, Chute CG, Time-Related Patient Data Retrieval for the Case Studies from the Pharmacogenomics Research Network.  Journal of Medical Systems, 2012 PMID: 23076712
  6. Rea S, Pathak J, Savova G, Oniki TA, Westberg L, Beebe CE, Tao C, Parker CG, Haug PJ, Huff SM, Chute CG.  Building a robust, scalable and standards-driven infrastructure for secondary use of EHR data: The SHARPn project.  J Biomed Inform. 2012 Aug; 45(4):763-71. Epub 2012 Feb 04.  PMID:22326800. DOI:10.1016/j.jbi.2012.01.009.
  7. Tao C, He Y, Poland GA, Chute CG.  Time modeling of vaccine adverse events in VAERS for temporal analysis. International Conference on Biomedical Ontology. July 2012.
  8. Wu ST, Liu H, Li D, Tao C, Musen MA, Chute CG, Shah NH.  Unified Medical Language System term occurrences in clinical notes: a large-scale corpus analysis.  J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2012 Jun 1; 19(e1):e149-56. Epub 2012 Apr 04.  PMID:22493050. PMCID:3392861. DOI:10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000744.
  9. Tao C, Zhang Y, Jiang G, Bouamrane M, Chute CG.  Optimizing Semantic MEDLINE for Translational Science Studies Using Semantic Web Technologies. International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, (CIKM 2012). 2012.
  10. Tao C, Wongsuphasawat K, Clark K, Plaisant C, Shneiderman B, Chute CG.  Towards event sequence representation, reasoning and visualization for EHR data.  IHI'12 - Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGHIT International Health Informatics Symposium. 2012:801-5.
  11. Tao C, Noy NF, Solbrig HR, Shah NH, Musen MA, Chute CG.  Proposed SKOS extensions for bioportal terminology services.  Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). 2012; 7185 LNCS:342-9.
  12. Song D, Chute CG, Tao C. Semantator: annotating clinical narratives with semantic web ontologies.  AMIA Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2012; 2012:20-9. Epub 2012 Mar 19.  PMID:22779043. PMCID:3392053.
  13. Liu H, Wu S, Tao C, Chute CG.  Modeling UIMA Type System Using Web Ontology Language – towards Interoperability among UIMA-based NLP Tools.  International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM 2012). 2012.
  14. Li D, Tao C, Liu H, Chute CG.  Ontology-based Temporal Relation Modeling with MapReduce Latent Dirichlet Allocations for Big EHR Data.  International Symposium on Big Data and MapReduce. 2012.
  15. Bouamrane M, Tao C, Mair F.  Quality Assessment of Electronic Health Information Management Systems. International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM 2012). 2012.

2011

  1. Song D, Chute CG, Tao C. Semantator: A Semi-automatic Semantic Annotation Tool for Clinical Narratives.  International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2011). 2011 OCT.
  2. Tao C, Jiang G, Clark KK, Sharma DK, Chute CG.  Toward Answering Time-Related Questions from Adverse Event Reports Using Ontology-based Approaches.  International Conference on Biomedical Ontologies: Representing Adverse. 2011 July.
  3. Tao C, Solbrig HR, Chute CG.  CNTRO 2.0: A Harmonized Semantic Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives.  AMIA Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2011; 2011:64-8. Epub 2011 Mar 07.  PMID:22211182. PMCID:3248753.
  4. Tao C, Pathak J, Welch SR, Bouamrane MM, Huff SM, Chute CG.  Toward semantic web based knowledge representation and extraction from electronic health records.  International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM 2011). 2011:75-8.
  5. Tao C, Parker CG, Oniki TA, Pathak J, Huff SM, Chute CG.  An OWL meta-ontology for representing the Clinical Element Model. AMIA Annual Symposium. 2011; 2011:1372-81. Epub 2011 Oct 22.  PMID:22195200. PMCID:3243162.
  6. Tao C, Jiang G, Wei W, Solbrig HR, Chute CG.  Towards Semantic-Web Based Representation and Harmonization of Standard Meta-data Models for Clinical Studies.  AMIA Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2011; 2011:59-63. Epub 2011 Mar 07.  PMID:22211181. PMCID:3248749.
  7. Embley DW, Liddle SW, Tao C. A Web of Knowledge: A Conceptual-Modeling Perspective.  Lecture Note in Computer Science. 2011; 6520:137-60.  DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-17505-3_7.
  8. Clark KK, Sharma DK, Chute CG, Tao C. Application of a temporal reasoning framework tool in analysis of medical device adverse events. AMIA Annual Symposium. 2011; 2011:1366-71. Epub 2011 Oct 22.  PMID:22195199. PMCID:3243139.
  9. Bouamrane MM, Mair F, Tao C. Managing complexity in pre-operative information management systems.  International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM 2011). 2011:3-10.

2010 and previous

  1. Wei WQ, Tao C, Jiang G, Chute CG.  A high throughput semantic concept frequency based approach for patient identification: a case study using type 2 diabetes mellitus clinical notes. AMIA Annual Symposium. 2010; 2010:857-61. Epub 2010 Nov 13.  PMID:21347100. PMCID:3041302.
  2. Tao C, Wei WQ, Solbrig HR, Savova G, Chute CG.  CNTRO: A Semantic Web Ontology for Temporal Relation Inferencing in Clinical Narratives.  AMIA Annual Symposium. 2010; 2010:787-91. Epub 2010 Nov 13.  PMID:21347086. PMCID:3041418.
  3. Tao C, Solbrig HR, Sharma DK, Wei WQ, Savova GK, Chute CG.  Time-Oriented Question Answering from Clinical Narratives Using Semantic-Web Techniques. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2010; 6497:241-56.  PMID:22025812. PMCID:3198866. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-17749-1_16.
  4. Embley DW, Liddle SW, Lonsdale DW, Steward A, Tao C. KBB: A Knowledge-Bundle Builder for Research Studies.  International Workshop on Active Conceptual Modeling of Learning in conjunction with ER 2009, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2010; 6413:148-157. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-16385-2_19.
  5. Tao C, Embley DW.  FOCIH: Form-based Ontology Creation, Information Harvesting.  International Conference of Conceptual Modeling (ER 2009), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2009 Nov; 5829:346-59.  DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-04840-1_26.
  6. Tao C, Pathak J, Solbrig HR, Wei WQ, Chute CG.  LexRDF Model: An RDF-based Unified Model for Heterogeneous Biomedical Ontologies.  CEUR Workshop Proc. 2009 Oct 26; 521:3.  PMID:21804785. PMCID:3146261.
  7. Tao C, Pathak J, Solbrig HR, Chute CG.  LexOWL: A Bridge from LexGrid to OWL.  International Conference of Biomedical Ontology (ICBO 2009). 2009 Jul:131-4.  DOI:1038/npre.2009.3468.1.
  8. Tao C, Embley DW.  Automatic Hidden-Web Table Interpretation, Conceptualization, and Semantic Annotation.  Journal of Data & Knowledge Engineering. 2009; 68(7):683-703.  DOI:10.1016/j.datak.2009.02.010.
  9. Embley DW, Liddle SW, Lonsdale DW, Nagy G, Tijerino Y, Clawson R, Crabtree J, Ding Y, Jha P, Lian Z, Lynn S, Padmanabhan R, Peters J, Tao C, Watts R, Woodbury C, Zitzelberger A.  A Conceptual-Model-Based Computational Alembic for a Web of Knowledge.  International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2008), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2008; 5231:532-3.  DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-87877-3_47.
  10. Tao C, Embley DW.  Seed-based Generation of Personalized Bio-Ontologies for Information Extraction.  International Workshop on Conceptual Modeling for Life Sciences Applications (CMLSA 2007) in conjunction with ER 2007, Lecture Notes In Computer Science. 2007 Nov; 4802:74-84.  DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-76292-8_9.
  11. Tao C, Embley DW.  Automatic Hidden-Web Table Interpretation by Sibling Page Comparison.  International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER2007), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, New York. 2007 Nov:566-81.  DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-75563-0_38.
  12. Tao C. Toward Making Online Biological Data Machine Understandable.  International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2006), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2006 Nov; 4273:992-3.  DOI:10.1007/11926078_83.
  13. Tao C, Ding Y, Lonsdale D.  Automatic Creation of Web Services from Extraction Ontologies.  International Workshop on Semantic Web Applications: Theory and Practice (SWAT 2006) in conjunction with ER 2006, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2006 Nov; 4231:415-24.  DOI:10.1007/11908883_49.
  14. Tao C, Embley DW.  HTML Table Interpretation by Sibling Page Comparison in the Molecular Biology Domain.  Proceedings of the 3rd Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Symposium (BIOT 2006) Provo, UT. 2006 Oct:116-9.
  15. Embley DW, Tao C, Liddle SW.  Automating the Extraction of Data from HTML Tables with Unknown Structure.  Journal of Data & Knowledge Engineering. 2005 Jul; 54(1):3-28.  DOI:10.1016/j.datak.2004.10.004.
  16. Embley DW, Tao C, Liddle SW.  Automatically Extracting Ontologically Specified Data from HTML Tables with Unknown Structure.  International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2002), Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2002 Oct 7-11(2573):322-27.  DOI:10.1007/3-540-45816-6_32.