Todd Johnson, PhD

Professor of Biomedical Informatics

Todd R. Johnson, PhD, is a professor of biomedical informatics at UTHealth School of Biomedical Informatics (SBMI). Johnson’s efforts at SBMI are focused on the application of informatics in clinical settings, including quality and safety dashboards, visual analytics, clinical research informatics and big data for health care. His research uses cognitive science, computer science and human factors engineering to solve biomedical informatics problems. In 1991, Johnson received his PhD in artificial intelligence from The Ohio State University, after which, he continued his research at Ohio State as an associate professor in the Department of Pathology’s Laboratory for Knowledge Based Medical Systems. In 1998, Johnson came to SBMI as one of the founding faculty members and served for three years as the associate dean for academic affairs. Johnson left SBMI to join the faculty at the University of Kentucky in 2010, where he developed a new academic division of biomedical informatics and led the effort to transform clinical and translational science through the use of new digital methodologies. He rejoined the SBMI faculty as a professor on Nov. 1, 2013.

“Informatics is the science of meaningful data, which indicates why informatics is so hard: machines are best at processing data, whereas humans are best at constructing and processing meaning. To better manage and utilize the increasing amount of biomedical data, we need to find ways to program computers to act as if they understand the meaning of that data or to help us derive meaning from data. By doing this, computers can begin to give us information, instead of overloading us with data.”

Education

  • PhD, 1991, Artificial Intelligence with minors in cognitive science and the theory of computation, The Ohio State University 
  • MS, 1986, Computer and Information Science, The Ohio State University 
  • BS, 1984, Computer and Information Science,The Ohio State University 

Research Areas

  • Medical device usability and safety
  • Patient safety and quality
  • Human factors engineering
  • Ontologies and knowledge sharing
  • Information visualization
  • Clinical data warehousing

Research Projects

Current Projects

  • Strategic Health IT Advanced Research Project-C (Patient-centered cognitive support)
    • Research area #4: Cognitive Information Design and Visualization

Courses Taught

Special Topics in Health Informatics: Health Informatics Visualization & Visual Analytics (HI 6001b)

Contact

Todd.R.Johnson@uth.tmc.edu

7000 Fannin, Suite 600

Houston, TX 77030

Phone: 713.500.3913

Fax: 713.500.3929

Publications

In Review

  1. Nahm, M., Johnson, C., Johnson, T.,Fendt, K., & Zhang, J., Clinical Research Data Quality Literature Review and Pooled Analysis. Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials.  
  2. Nahm, M., Pieper, C., Johnson, C., Johnson, T., Zhang, J., Unified Linear Additive Model of Data Error Generation and Correction Applied to Clinical Research Data Management.

In Press

  1. Harris, D., Henderson, D., Kavuluru, V., Johnson, T. Improving Scalability and Performance of the i2b2 Workbench Using Common Table Expressions. Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics.
  2. Joffe, E., Turley, J.P., Hwang, K.O., Johnson T.R., Johnson, C. Bernstam, E.V. Evaluation of a problem-specific SBAR tool to improve nurse-physician phone communication in the after-hours setting: A randomized trial. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Safety.
  3. Zhiguo, Y., Johnson, T.R., Kavuluru, R., Phrase Based Topic Modeling for Semantic Information Processing in Biomedicine.  To appear as a short paper in the 2013IEEE 12th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications.
  4. Joffe, E., Turley, J.P., Hwang, K.O., Johnson T.R., Johnson, C. Bernstam, E.V., Errors in after-hours phone consultations—a laboratory simulation study. BMJ Quality & Safety.
  5. Plaisant, C., Chao, T., Wu, J., Hettinger, A., Herskovic, J., Johnson, T., Bernstam, E., Markowitz, E., Powsner, S., Shneiderman, B., Twinlist: Novel User Interface Designs for Medication Reconciliation, To appear in AMIA 2013

In Print

  1. Plaisant, C., Chao, T., Wu, J.,  Hettinger, A. Z., Herskovic, J., Johnson, T., Bernstam, E., Markowitz, E., Powsner, E., Shneiderman, B., Twinlist: Novel user interface designs for medication reconciliation, Proc. American Medical Informatics Assn (AMIA 2013), Washington, DC (November 2013), 1150-1159. (Winner of one of five distinguished paper awards given at AMIA 2013. Selected from 103 full research papers.)
  2. Johnson TR, Markowitz E, Bernstam EV, Herskovic JR, Thimbleby H. SYFSA: A framework for Systematic Yet Flexible Systems Analysis. J Biomed Inform. Published first online: 2013 May 31. PMID: 23727053
  3. Saitwal, H., Qing, D., Jones, S., Bernstam, E. V., Chute, C. G., &Johnson, T. R. (2012). Cross-terminology mapping challenges: A demonstration using medication terminological systems. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 45(4), 613–625. doi:10.1016/j.jbi.2012.06.005
  4. Kulikowski, C. A., Shortliffe, E. H., Currie, L. M., Elkin, P. L., Hunter, L. E., Johnson, T. R.,Kalet, I. J., Lenert LA, Ozbolt JG, Musen MA, Smith JW, Tarczy-Hornoch PZ, Williamson JJ. (2012). AMIA Board White Paper: Definition of Biomedical Informatics and Specification of Core Competencies for Graduate Education in the Discipline. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001053
  5. Goodwin, J. C., Johnson, T. R., Cohen, T., Herskovic, J. R., & Bernstam, E. V. (2012). Predicting biomedical document access as a function of past use. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA, 19(3), 473–478. doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2011-00032
  6. Bozzo Silva, P. A., Bernstam, E. V., Markowitz, E., Johnson, T. R., Zhang, J., &Herskovic, J. R. (2011). Automated medication reconciliation and complexity of care transitions. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, 2011, 1252–1260.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243161
  7. Franklin A, Liu Y, Li Z, Nguyen V, Johnson TR, Robinson D, Okafor N, King B, Patel VL, Zhang J. (2011)Opportunistic decision making and complexity in emergency care. Journal of Biomedical Informatics.
  8. Markowitz, E., Bernstam, E. V., Herskovic, J., Zhang, J., Shneiderman, B., Plaisant, C., &Johnson, T. R. (2011). Medication Reconciliation: Work Domain Ontology, Prototype Development, and a Predictive Model. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings, 2011, 878–887.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3243117/
  9. Myers, Risa B., Lomax, J. W., Manion, F. J., Tucker, N. M., &Johnson, T. R. (2010). Data Visualization of Teen Birth Rate Data Using Freely Available Rapid Prototyping Tools. 1st ACM International Health Informatics Symposium.  
  10. Bernstam, E. V., Smith, J. W., &Johnson, T. R. (2010). What is biomedical informatics? Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 43(1), 104-110. PMID: 19683067.
  11. Bernstam, E.V. and Johnson, T.R. (2009) Why Health Information Technology Doesn’t Work. The Bridge. National Academy of Engineering. 39(4), 30-35.
  12. Goodwin, J., Johnson, T. R., Zhang, J., Li, Z., &Okafor, N. (2009) Development of a Multi-Agent Simulation of a Level-One Trauma Center. Proceedings of the 2009 AMIA Symposium.  
  13. Saleem JJ, Russ AL, Sanderson P, Johnson TR, Zhang J, Sittig DF. (2009) Current challenges and opportunities for better integration of human factors research with development of clinical information systems. IMIA Yearbook 2009.IMIA Yearbook 2009, 4: 48-58.
  14. Nahm, M., White, L, Johnson, C., Johnson, T, Zhang, J. (2009). Additive Theory of Error Generation and Correction Derived from & Applied to Clinical Research Data Management. 3rd Information Quality Industry Symposium (IQIS) July 15-17, 2009, Cambridge Massachusetts.
  15. Brixey, J. J., Zhang, J., Johnson, T. R.,& Turley, J. P. (2009). Legibility of a Volumetric Infusion Pump in a Shock Trauma Intensive Care Unit. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 35(4), 229-235.
  16. Brixey, J. J., Tang, Z., Robinson, D. J., Johnson, C. W., Johnson, T. R., Turley, J. P., et al. (2008). Interruptions in a level one trauma center: a case study. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 77(4), 235-41. doi: S1386-5056(07)00089-5.
  17. Brixey, J. J., Robinson, D. J., Johnson, C. W., Johnson, T. R., Turley, J. P., & Zhang, J. (2007). A concept analysis of the phenomenon interruption. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 30(1), E26-42. doi: 00012272-200701000-00012.
  18. Johnson, T. R., Tang, X., Graham, M. J., Brixey, J., Turley, J. P., Zhang, J., et al. (2007). Attitudes toward medical device use errors and the prevention of adverse events. Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources, 33(11), 689-94. doi: 18074717.
  19. Brixey J, Robinson D, Johnson C, Johnson T, Turley J, Patel V, et al. Towards a hybrid method to categorize interruptions and activities in healthcare. International Journal of Medical Informatics. 2007;76(11-12):812-20.
  20. Bernstam, E.V., Pancheri, K.K., Johnson, C.M., Johnson, T.R., Thomas, E.J., & Turley, J.P. (2007). Reasons for after-hours calls by hospital floor nurses to on-call physicians. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety / Joint Commission Resources, 33(6), 342-9.
  21. Tang, Z., Weavind, L., Mazabob, J., Thomas, E. J., Chu-Weininger, M. Y. L., &Johnson, T. R. (2007). Workflow in intensive care unit remote monitoring: A time-and-motion study. Critical Care Medicine, 35(9), 2057-63. doi: 17855819.
  22. Smith-Akin, K.A., McLane, S., Craig, T.M., &Johnson, T.R. (2006). Application of cognitive engineering principles to the redesign of a dichotomous identification key for parasitology. AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings / AMIA Symposium. AMIA Symposium, 739-43.
  23. Tang, Z, Johnson, TR, Tindall, RD, and Zhang, J (2006). Applying heuristic evaluation to improve the usability of a telemedicine system. Telemed J E Health 12(1):24-34.
  24. Turley, JP, Brixey, JJ, Johnson, TR, Mokkarala, P, and Zhang, J (2006). Comprehensive Medical Error Ontology for the Codification of Published Literature. Cognitive Studies 13(1):6-16.
  25. Turley, JP, Johnson, TR, Smith, DP, Zhang, J, and Brixey, JJ (2006). Operating manual-based usability evaluation of medical devices: an effective patient safety screening method. JtComm J Qual Patient Saf 32(4):214-20.
  26. Wang, H, Johnson, TR, and Zhang, J (2006). The order effect in human abductive reasoning: An empirical and computational study. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 18(2):215-247.
  27. Wang, H, Johnson, TR, and Zhang, J (2006). A hybrid system of abductive tactical decision making. Int. J. Hybrid Intell. Syst. 3(1):23-33.
  28. Chu-Weininger, M. Y. L., Johnson, T., Tang, Z., & Thomas, E. (2006). The eICU® as a Clinical Information System: Interface Design and Information Representation. In AMIA Spring Congress Proc.
  29. Johnson, T. R., Zhang, J., Patel, V. L., Keselman, A., Tang, X., Brixey, J., Paige, D., Turley, J. P. (2005). The role of patient safety in the device purchasing process. In K. Henriksen, J. B. Battles, E. Marks & D. I. Lewin (Eds.), Advances in Patient Safety: From Research to Implementation (pp. 341-352). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
  30. Zhang, J., Patel, V. L., Johnson, T. R., & Turley, J. P. (2005). Evaluating and predicting patient safety in medical device use. In K. Henriksen, J. B. Battles, E. Marks & D. I. Lewin (Eds.), Advances in Patient Safety: From Research to Implementation (pp. 323-336). Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
  31. Chen, J, Flaitz, C, and Johnson, T (2005). Comparison of accuracy captured by different controlled languages in oral pathology diagnoses. AMIA Annu Symp Proc:918.
  32. 32.    Walji, M, Johnson-Throop, K, Johnson, T, Bernstam, E, and Zhang, J (2005). Persuasive email messages for patient communication. AMIA Annu Symp Proc:1148.
  33. Brixey, J. J., Robinson, D. J., Tang, Z., Johnson, T. R., Turley, J. P., & Zhang, J. (2005).  Interruptions in workflow for RNs in a level one trauma center.  Proceedings of AMIA 2005.
  34. Wang, H., Sun, Y., Johnson, T. R., & Yuan, Y. (2005). Prioritized Spatial Updating in the Intrinsic Frame of Reference. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 5(1), 89-113.
  35. Wang, H, Johnson, TR, Sun, Y, and Zhang, J (2005). Object location memory: the interplay of multiple representations. Memory and Cognition 33(7):1147-59.
  36. Zhang, J., Patel, V. L., Johnson, T. R.,& Turley, J. P. (2005). Health informatics and medical error. In Business Briefing: US Healthcare Strategies 2005 (pp. 34-35): Touch Briefings.
  37. Laxmisan, A., Malhotra, S., Keselman, A., Johnson, T. R., & Patel, V. L. (2005). Decisions about critical events in device-related scenarios as a function of expertise. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 38, 200-212.
  38. Johnson, C. M., Johnson, T. R.,& Zhang, J. (2005). A user-centered framework for redesigning health care interfaces. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 38, 75-87.
  39. Keselman, A., Patel, V. L., Zhang, J., &Johnson, T. (2004). Institutional decision making to select patient care devices: an analysis to identify threats to patient safety. MEDINFO 2004.(Nominated for the Diane Forsythe award.)
  40. Graham, M. J., Kubose, T. K., Jordan, D., Zhang, J., Johnson, T. R., & Patel, V. L. (2004). Heuristic evaluation of infusion pumps: implications for patient safety in intensive care units. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 73, 771-779.
  41. Sun, Y., Wang, H., &Johnson, T. R. (2004). Spatial Updating in Intrinsic Frames of Reference. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 1285-1290.
  42. Zhang, J., Patel, V. L., Johnson, T. R., &Shortliffe, E. H. (2004). A cognitive taxonomy of medical errors. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 37(3), 193-204.
  43. Wang, H., Fan, J., &Johnson, T. R. (2004). A symbolic model of human attentional networks. Cognitive Systems Research, 5, 119-134.
  44. Johnson, T. R., Zhang, J., Tang, Z., Johnson, C. M., & Turley, J. P. (2004). Assessing Informatics Students’ Satisfaction with a Web-based Courseware System. International Journal of Medical Informatics (73), 181-187.
  45. Tang, Z., Zhang, J.,Johnson, T. R., Bernstam, E., &Tindall, D. (2004). Integrating task analysis in software usability evaluation: A case study. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 48th Annual Meeting.
  46. Wang, H., Johnson, T. R., & Zhang, J. (2003). A multilevel approach to cognitive modeling (Commentary on Anderson &Lebiere - The Newell Test for a Theory of Cognition). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(5), 626-627.
  47. Zhang, J., Johnson, T. R., Patel, V. L., Paige, D. L., &Kubose, T. (2003). Using usability heuristics to evaluate patient safety of medical devices. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 36(1-2), 22-30.
  48. Keselman, A., Patel, V. L., Johnson, T., & Zhang, J. (2003). Institutional decision making to select patient care devices: Identifying venues to promote patient safety. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 36(1-2), 31-44.
  49. Brixey, J. J., Walji, M., Zhang, J.,Johnson, T. R., & Turley, J. P. (2004). Proposing a Taxonomy and Model of Interruption. Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Enterprise Networking and Computing in Healthcare Industry (pp. 184-188).
  50. Brixey, J.J, Turley, J. P., Zhang, J.,&Johnson, T. R. (2004). Factors Influencing the Legibility of a Small Screen Medical Device Using Contextual Analysis. Proceedings of the XVIII Annual International Occupational Ergonomics and Safety Conference.
  51. Chung, P. H., Zhang, J., Johnson, T. R., & Patel, V. L. (2003). An extended hierarchical task analysis for error prediction in medical devices. Proc AMIA Symp, 165-169.(Student paper competition finalist.)
  52. Zhang, J., Patel, V. L., &Johnson, T. R. (2002). Medical error: is the solution medical or cognitive? J Am Med Inform Assoc, 9(6 Suppl), S75-77.
  53. Brixey, J., Johnson, T. R., & Zhang, J. (2002). Evaluating a medical error taxonomy. Proc AMIA Symp, 71-75.
  54. Wang, H., Johnson, T. R., Zhang, J., & Wang, Y. (2002). A study of object location memory. In W. Gray & C. Schunn (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 920-925). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  55. Johnson, T. R., Wang, H., Zhang, J., & Wang, Y. (2002). A model of spatio-temporal coding of memory for multidimensional stimuli. In W. Gray & C. Schunn (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 506-511). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  56. Turley, J. P., Johnson, C., Johnson, T., & Zhang, J. (2001). A clean slate: initiating a graduate program in health informatics. MD Computing, 18(1), 47-48.
  57. Wang, H., Johnson, T. R., & Zhang, J. (2001). The mind's view of space. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Cognitive Science, 191-198.
  58. Zhang, J., Johnson, T. R., & Lu, G. (2001). The impact of representational formats on a dynamic decision making task. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of Cognitive Science, 212-219.
  59. Johnson, T. R., &Krems, J. F. (2001). Use of current explanations in multicausal abductive reasoning. Cognitive Science, 25, 903-939.
  60. Johnson, C., Johnson, T. R., & Zhang, J. (2000). Increasing Productivity and Reducing Errors through Usability Analysis: A Case Study and Recommendations. Proc AMIA Symp, 394-398.
  61. Wang, H., Zhang, J., &Johnson, T. R. (2000). Human belief revision and the order effect. In L. R. Gleitman & A. K. Joshi (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 547-552). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  62. Johnson, T. R., Wang, H., & Zhang, J. (2000). Declarative and Procedural Learning in Alphabetic Retrieval. In Proceedings of the Twenty Second Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 717-722). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  63. Chuah, J., Zhang, J., &Johnson, T. R. (2000). The Representational Effect in Complex Systems: A Distributed Representation Approach. In L. R. Gleitman & A. K. Joshi (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty Second Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 633-638). Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  64. Johnson, T. R. (1998). A Comparison of ACT-R and Soar. In U. Schmid, J. Krems & F. Wysotzki (Eds.), Mind modeling -- A cognitive science approach to reasoning, learning and discovery. Lengerich (Germany): Pabst Scientific Publishing.
  65. Chuah, J., Zhang, J., &Johnson, T. R. (1998). [Abstract] Distributed cognition of a navigational instrument display task. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1210). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  66. Zhang, J., Johnson, T. R., & Wang, H. (1998). Order effects and frequency learning in tactical decision making. Thinking and Reasoning, 4(2), 123-145.
  67. Zhang, J., Johnson, T. R., & Wang, H. (1998). Isomorphic representations lead to the discovery of different forms of a common strategy with different degrees of generality. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1188-1193). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  68. Wang, H., Johnson, T. R., & Zhang, J. (1998). UEcho: A model of uncertainty management in human abductive reasoning. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 1113-1118). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. [This paper won the 1998 Marr Prize for best student paper.]
  69. Johnson, T. R., Wang, H., & Zhang, J. (1998). Modeling speed-up and transfer of declarative and procedural knowledge. In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 531-536). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  70. Johnson, T. R. (1998). Acquisition and transfer of declarative and procedural knowledge. In F. E. Ritter & R. M. Young (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 15-22). Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press.
  71. Johnson, T. R. (1997). Control in ACT-R and Soar. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 343-348.
  72. Zhang, J., Johnson, T. R., & Wang, H. (1996). Order effects and frequency learning in belief updating. Proceedings  of the 18th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 708-713.
  73. Johnson, T. R. (1996). Control  in ACT-R and Soar. In Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 201-208): TechnischeUniversität Berlin.
  74. Johnson, T. R., & Zhang, J. (1995). A hybrid learning model of abductive reasoning. In R. Sun & F. Alexandre (Eds.), The Working Notes of THE IJCAI Workshop on Connectionist-Symbolic Integration: From Unified to Hybrid Approaches (pp. 12-17).
  75. Smith, J. W., Jr., Bayazitoglu, A., Johnson, T. R., Johnson, K. A., &Amra, N. K. (1995). One framework, two systems: Flexible abductive methods in the problem-space paradigm applied to antibody identification and biopsy interpretation. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 7, 201-225.
  76. Krems, J., &Johnson, T. R. (1995). Integration of anomalous data in multicausal explanations. In J. D. Moore & J. F. Lehman (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 277-282). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.
  77. Johnson, T. R., Zhang, J., & Wang, H. (1994). Bottom-up recognition learning: A compilation-based model of limited-lookahead learning. In A. Ram & K. Eiselt (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 469-474): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  78. Johnson, T. R., Krems, J., &Amra, N. K. (1994). A computational model of human abductive skill and its acquisition. In A. Ram & K. Eiselt (Eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 463--468): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  79. Smith, J. W., Steier, D., &Johnson, T. R. (1993). The Soar Architecture: Guest Editors' Introduction. IEEE Expert, 8(3), 13-14.
  80. Smith, J. W., &Johnson, T. R. (1993). A stratified approach to specifying, designing, and building knowledge systems. IEEE Expert, 8(3), 15-25.
  81. Bayazitoglu, A., Johnson, T. R., & Smith, J. W. (1993). Limitations of the unique-attribute representation for a learning system. In Proceedings of the Ninth IEEE Conference on Artificial Intelligence for Applications (pp. 219-225). Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Press.
  82. Amra, N. K., Smith, J. W., Johnson, K. A., &Johnson, T. R. (1992). An approach to evaluating heuristics in abduction: A case study using RedSoar - An abductive system for red blood cell antibody identification. In E. Bolger (Ed.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care (pp. 690-694). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  83. Bayazitoglu, A., Smith, J. W., &Johnson, T. R. (1992). A Diagnostic System That Learns From Experience. In E. Bolger (Ed.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care (pp. 685-689). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
  84. Chandrasekaran, B., Johnson, T. R., & Smith, J. W. (1992). Task-structure analysis for knowledge modeling. Communications of the ACM, 35(9).
  85. Johnson, T. R., Smith, J. W., Johnson, K., Amra, N. K., &DeJongh, M. (1992). Diagrammatic Reasoning of Tabular Data. In Workshop on Reasoning with Diagrammatic Representations (pp. 164-167). Stanford.
  86. Johnson, K. A., Johnson, T. R., Smith, J. W., Jr., DeJongh, M., Fischer, O., Amra, N. K., &Bayazitoglu, A. (1991). RedSoar - A system for red blood cell antibody identification. In P. D. Clayton (Ed.), Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care (pp. 664--668). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
  87. Johnson, T. R., & Smith, J. W. (1991). A framework for opportunistic abductive strategies. In K. J. Hammond & D. Gentner (Eds.), Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 760--764). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  88. Bylander, T., Johnson, T. R., &Goel, A. (1991). Structured matching: A task-specific technique for making decisions. Knowledge Acquisition, 3(1), 1-20.
  89. Johnson, T. R., & Smith, J. W. (1990). A flexible technique for abduction. In Working notes of the AAAI-90 Spring Symposium on AI in Medicine (pp. 105-107).
  90. Johnson, T. R., Smith, J. W., &Bylander, T. (1989). HYPER—Hypothesis matching using compiled knowledge. In W. E. Hammond (Ed.), Proceedings of the AAMSI Congress 1989 (pp. 126-130). San Francisco, California: American Association for Medical Systems and Informatics.